- History of the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry
- History of the Aerosol Department
- History of the Aerosol Laboratory
- History of the Fiber Materials Electrospinning Laboratory
The Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, one of the oldest institutes in Russia, was organized in 1918 year and bears the name of Lev Yakovlevich Karpov who was the first Head of the Soviet chemical industry. The first director of the institute was Aleksei Nikolaevich Bakh, outstanding chemist.
The history of the institute reflects the history of the advancement of the entire chemical science and industry in the country. The main goal of the institute during the first years of its existence was following the impelling needs of the country in chemical products under significant deficiency in resources and skilled personnel. Different problems were solved, from elaboration of methods of soap production from oil and accelerated preparation of coal and peat for the first Russian electric power stations in Kashira and Shatura to improvement of production of synthetic ammonia and scientific expertise of chemical plants’ projects. In 1924, professor B.I. Sbarskiy together with other scientists took part in V.I. Lenin’s body embalming.
In 1930s, major scientific schools were developed in a number of significant fields of physical chemistry. Academician A.N. Frumkin studied successfully problems in electrochemistry and surface phenomena, professors A.N. Fuks and I.V. Petryanov did investigations in aerosols science, laboratories headed by academician A.N. Bah and professor S.S. Medvedev dealt with catalysis processes. A great success was achieved in studying of structure of matter, chemical kinetics, and corrosion processes. This scientific work resulted in its international recognition, and the institute had become the flagship of physical chemistry in our country for many years. During the Great Patriotic War, the institute developed materials and equipments against chemical weapon attack, electrochemical detonators for naval and land mines, protection for military weaponry against corrosion, catalytic heaters, as well as methods of air regeneration in submarines. For its outstanding scientific work and successful implementation of the government’s tasks, the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry was awarded in 1943 the Order of the Red Banner of Labour. In the postwar years, a fast development began of new scientific branches such as quantum chemistry and radiochemistry.
For many years, the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry was a center of modern physical chemistry. Many institute laboratories were transformed to academic and subject research institutes worked in fields of electrochemistry, nitrogen industry, artificial fiber, catalysis, fossil fuels, and technical and economic research. Over the period of of more than 40 years, the institute was headed by the outstanding electrochemist, academician Ya. M. Kolotyrkin.
New fields in chemistry and chemical technology were aborning and successfully developed in the institute. Names of many outstanding physical chemists are associated with the institute. Among them are A.N. Bakh, C.S. Bagdasaryan, N.F. Bakeev, P.N. Boreskov, N.M. Zhavoronkov, V.A. Kargin, K.A. Kocheshkov, Ya.M. Kolotyrkin, S.S. Medvedev, I.V. Petryanov-Socolov, Ya.K. Syrkin, A.N. Frumkin, as well as corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences, I.A. Kazarnovskiy, A.N. Pravednikov, A.I. Rabinovich, and M.G. Slinko. These scientists have established the bases for such areas of modern physical chemistry as chemistry of surface phenomena, the theories of adsorption and structure of matter, physics of disperse systems, the theories of electrode processes and protection of metals against corrosion, chemical kinetics and catalysis, radiochemistry and chemistry of high molecular weight compounds. The institute was among the USSR instituts that first began works on application of nuclear energy.
In 1959, due to development of nuclear physics and radiochemistry - and initiative of academician Y.M. Kolotyrkin, the Obninsk Branch of the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry was organized, aimed at the work in the area of radiochemistry. The tasks of the Obninsk branch were studying the effects of radiation on different substances and materials, practical application of the scientific results in chemical and other industries.
The Aerosol Department was organized in 1960 on the base of the Aerosol Laboratory (the head was academician I.V. Petryanov). The Laboratory of Dusts and Smogs (it was renamed later to Aerosol Laboratory) was organized in 1932. Its first head was academician N.A. Fuks. Since 1937 the laboratory was headed by academician I.V. Petryanov, and since 1996 it was headed by A.K. Budyka, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences. In 1959 the Laboratory of Physics of Aero-Dispersed Systems was organized under leadership of Professor N.A. Fuks. Later the laboratory head was professor A.A. Lushnikov. In 1960 the Laboratory of Aerosols was organized in the Obninsk Branch of the institute (the laboratory head was V.N. Kirichenko, doctor of chemical sciences, and then V.M. Berezhnoy, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences). In 1974, the Laboratory of Aero-Colloid Dynamics (the laboratory head was professor A.G. Sutugin and then V.M. Minashkin, doctor of technical sciences) and in 1994, the Laboratory of Aerosol Technology (the head is professor N.N. Belov) were organized.
In 2007 the Laboratory of Electrospinning of Fiber Materials was organized headed by Yu.N. Filatov, doctor of chemical sciences.
Igor V. Petryanov-Socolov (1907-1996), doctor of chemical sciences, professor, academician, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lenin Prize winner and and State Prize winner.
In 1930 he graduated from the Moscow State University, Chemical Department. In 1929 he began his work in the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry as a junior chemist. He was a laboratory chief since 1937 and a chief of the Aerosol Department since 1960.
Scientific tractates by I.V. Petryanov are devoted to fundamental investigations of electrical and radioactive properties of aerosols. One outstanding contribution to the physic-chemistry science by I.V. Petryanov was the discovery of electrospinning of ultrafine polymer fibers resulting in development of industrial production of filter materials named PF (Petryanov Filter®) and associated products. Academician I.V. Petryanov paid great attention to theoretical and experimental investigations in area of building-up processes of condensation aerosols and to obtaining of aero-dispersive systems with prescribed properties. In 1980s, academician I.V. Petryanov and professor A.G. Sutugin headed the research of the optical properties of aerosol particles formed in bulk fires that would be generated by a large-scale use of nuclear weapons. (“Nuclear Winter” research project).
Academician I.V. Petryanov together with academician N.N. Semyonov were the first in our country who proposed the conception of wasteless and low-waste technologies, multipurpose utilization of natural resources. Owing to their initiative, the UN Declaration on wasteless and low-waste technologies was accepted in 1979. “There is no dirt in chemistry, - I.V. Petryanov liked to repeat, - the dirt is the substance that is not on the place.” He showed that twofold increase in facilities leads to tenfold increase in wastes. Academician I.V. Petryanov has trained 12 doctors of sciences and 36 candidates of sciences. For many years he was a professor in the D.I. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia). Academician I.V. Petryanov is the author of 83 inventions, 7 monographs, about 30 scientific and popular scientific books.
Academician I.V. Petryanov was the editor in chief of the popular science journal “Chemistry and Life”, of publishing series “Scientists to Pupils”, and the scientific editor of “Encyclopaedia for Children”. He headed the section of popular science literature EAB AS USSR, was a member of editorial boards of magazine “Motherland” and newspaper “The Voice of the Homeland”, was the president of the editorial board of almanac “Memorials of Fatherland”. Under his direction, “Colloid Magazine” was released. In 1980 he was elected a chairman of the All-Union Bibliophile Association.
Scientific achievements of I.V. Petryanov were appreciated by awarding him Lenin and State prices. In 1971 he was awarded a title of Hero of Socialist Labour.
For his cultural-illuminant activities, academician I.V. Petryanov was awarded K.D. Ushinskiy Medal, N.I. Vavilov Medal and also Kalinga International Prize (by UNESCO).
To organize in 1932 year the Laboratory of Dusts and Smogs (the former name of the Aerosol Laboratory), academicians A.N. Bakh and A.I. Frumkin invited N.A. Fuks who became later the patriarch of the Soviet aerosol science and the scientist of world-wide reputation. In 1933, I.V. Petryanov, that time a young scientist of 25 years old, was taken into the laboratory.
Later N.D. Rosenblum, P.V. Lisovskiy, N.N. Tunickiy, and also M.V. Tihomirov and A.D. Gildman were included in the laboratory. In 1937, I.V. Petryanov and N.D. Rosenblum, under the leadership of N.A. Fuks, obtained first (in the USSR) ultrafine polymer fibers by electrocapillary method. In 1938, I.V. Petryanov became the chief of the laboratory and, together with N.D. Rosenblum, he organized very quickly the first manufacture of fiber materials. In 1940, production of filter materials necessary for production of gas-masks and known as trademark MF (Military Filter) began in Tver.
In 1946 the Aerosol Laboratory participated in the Soviet Nuclear Project. In 1947 the work aimed at development and study of filtering materials began for protection against solid and liquid aerosols typical for radiochemistry manufactures. In the late 1940s, the filter materials from ultrafine fibers got an official name “PF-materials”. Due to application of these materials, exhaust fumes from manufactures of nuclear industry were diminished by several orders of magnitude. Staff of the fabricating plants got an effective and reliable respiratory protective device – respirator SB-1 “Lepestok” (S.N. Shatskiy and P.I. Basmanov). In 1950s, a series of new filter materials PF was elaborated in the laboratory under the leadership of I.V. Kozlov, candidate of chemical Sciences.
In 1950–1980s, tools for analysis and control of radioactive and harmful aerosols and gases were created. Dozens of filter materials of PF type were developed for production of respirators, filters, and separators for chemical cells. The laboratory staff not only participated directly in designing, construction, and commissioning of manufactures of filter materials PF and associated products in Sillamyae, Tallin, Electrostal, Kimry, Leningrad, Chelyabinsk, Kovrov and other sites, but also tested innovation technologies in these new manufactures.
Under the leadership of professors N.A. Fuks and G.L. Natanson, and also doctor of chemical sciences A.A. Kirsh, theoretical and experimental investigations of aerosols detection effectiveness and resistance of fibrous filters in the wide range of air flow rates were carried out.
Under the leadership of professor B.I. Ogorodnikov and doctor of chemical sciences N.B. Borisov, techniques were developed and successfully applied for detection of radioactive gas-aerosol systems formed during nuclear weapon tests, normal service of NPP, and radiation accidents. During the 20 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident, monitoring of aerosols originated in the accident was carried out.
Under the leadership of professor B.F. Sadovskiy, self-cleaning filters for liquid aerosols and chemical cells separators were developed.
During the 70-year history of the laboratory, its members defended 31 candidate dissertations (equivalent to a PhD dissertation) and 12 doctoral dissertations, published 10 monographs and about 1000 articles, copyright certificates and patents.
Laboratory workers were awarded three Orders of Lenin, Order of the Great October Socialist Revolution, Order of the People's Friendship, five Orders of the Red Banner of Labour, Order of Red Star, eight Orders of Badge of Honor, and different medals. In 1941, I.V. Petryanov and N.D. Rosenblum were awarded Stalin Prize. In 1966, I.V. Petryanov, V.I. Kozlov, B.F. Sadovskiy, N.B. Borisov, P.I. Basmanov and B.I. Ogorodnikov were awarded Lenin Prize. In 1979, Y.N. Filatov, M.S. Yakushkin and A.D. Shepelev were awarded Moscow Comsomol Prize. In 1982, Y.N. Filatov, M.S. Yakushkin, A.D. Shepelev, A.A. Zaharian, A.G. Sharapov and V.A. Rykunov became Lenin’s Comsomol Prize winners.
Currently the chief of the Aerosol Department and the Aerosol Laboratory is A.K. Budyka, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences. His main tractates are devoted to methods of mathematical descriptions of fibrous structure of analytical materials working under conditions of large linear speed of gas flow.
In 2005, the base department for students’ and post-graduate students’ training was organized on the basis of the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry and the Chemistry and Technology of Polymer Processing Department of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology.
In 2007, the new Laboratory of Electrospinning of Fiber Materials was organized under the leadership of Y.N. Filatov, doctor of chemical sciences. This laboratory involved some young members of the Aerosol Laboratory. Main tractates by Y.N. Filatov are devoted to investigation of electrospinning of nano- and microfibrous materials and associated products. Y.N. Filatov is the author of 3 monographs, an educational guidance and 50 copyright certificates of USSR and patens of RF.
The current staffers of the laboratory are senior research scientist, candidate of technical sciences, M.S. Yakushkin, junior research scientists I.A. Kapustin, I.Yu. Filatov, N.A. Gruzdev, and V.A. Kozlov, and first-rank technicians V.M Avanesyan and N.N. Kuvshinov. Besides this staff, teachers, post-graduate students and students from the Base Department of Perspective Fibrous and Elastomeric Materials of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology related to the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry also work in the laboratory.
For the past few years, the laboratory workers: (1) developed and applied analytical tapes of new generation, which are equal in quality the products of Millipore (USA), the worldwide leader in this field; (2) developed respiratory materials allowing significant reduction of the breathing resistance of “Lepestok” respirators without any decline in their high effectiveness; (3) developed a new easy combustible analytical material for radionuclide detection. These new developments were awarded medals and certificates at international exhibitions.